Category Archives: Employment Policies

Does Your Attendance Policy Violate the FMLA?

Contributed by Steven Jados, September 5, 2019

The recent decision in Dyer v. Ventra Sandusky, LLC, issued by the U.S. Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals (which has jurisdiction over Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Tennessee), should motivate employers to take another look at whether their attendance policies run afoul of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA).

There are plenty of gray areas in the law, but it is generally clear that employees are not to be disciplined because they are absent for FMLA-covered reasons. That also means that employees should not accumulate attendance “points,” e.g., under a no-fault attendance policy, for FMLA-covered absences when such points can contribute to discipline up to and including termination of employment.

Clocking In

To its credit, the employer in Dyer did not assign attendance points for FMLA-covered absences.  But unfortunately for the employer, that is not the end of the story.

Under the employer’s attendance policy, employees were eligible for a one-point “reduction” of their attendance point balance for every 30-day period in which the employee had “perfect attendance.” The employer’s definition of perfect attendance was not self-explanatory.  For instance, an employee could be absent for several different reasons — including vacation, bereavement, jury duty, military duty, holidays, and union leave — and still have “perfect attendance” and eligibility for attendance point reductions.

However, FMLA-covered absences were not included among the types of absences that preserved perfect attendance status and point-reduction eligibility. And if an employee had a FMLA-covered absence, his progress toward the 30-day point reduction goal was reset to zero.

The Sixth Circuit noted that the FMLA’s regulations generally require that an employee not lose benefits while on FMLA leave. Because attendance point reductions (and progress toward such reductions) are benefits, the Sixth Circuit noted that, at the very least, progress toward the 30-day goal should be frozen while employees are on FMLA leave, rather than being reset to zero. The court also indicated that if other “equivalent,” but non-FMLA forms of leave were counted toward the 30-day goal, then FMLA-covered absences should also be counted toward the 30-day goal.

The bottom line is that the Dyer decision instructs employers that disciplinary and benefit policies must be closely scrutinized to determine whether they might dissuade employees from taking FMLA leave — or otherwise harm employees who take FMLA leave. If harm results, or if employees are faced with the decision of taking FMLA leave or forgoing benefits, potential exposure to liability under the FMLA may exist.

Are Employment Rules Getting Hazier With Legal Marijuana?

Contributed by Noah A. Frank, April 18, 2019

the cannabis leaf and judge gavel

Like a majority of U.S. states, Illinois’ legal stance on marijuana is becoming more tolerant and liberal – with regard to both medical and recreational use (also called “adult use”). As we previously reported on November 6, 2018, the Alternatives to Opioids Act of 2018, PA 100-1114 amended Illinois’ Medical Cannabis Pilot Program to allow individual prescribed opioid medication to enroll in the Illinois Opioid Alternative Pilot Program (OAPP). The OAPP allows these individuals to seek relief through the legal use of medical cannabis, rather than opioid medications. In the first two months of the program, 1,000 patients registered (compared with 61,231 qualifying patients that have been registered under the medical cannabis pilot program since September 2, 2014). This can be attributed to the decrease in time it takes to register, as well as the decrease in requirements and restrictions for qualifying as a registered patient under the OAPP.

Additionally, like many other state legislatures, the Illinois legislature has proposed bills, including HB-0902 which would legalize recreational use of marijuana. (See our prior post on this proposed bill). Even the federal government loosened its regulations regarding marijuana products through the Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018 (AIA), which specifically addressed and legalized the research and production of industrial hemp (marijuana plants having less than .03 percent THC concentration). In particular, the AIA legalized CBD (the non-psychoactive component of marijuana) derived from industrial hemp plants. (See our prior post on this act). It is important to note that while there are legal CBD products, which are derived from industrial hemp plants, CBD derived from marijuana plants with higher THC levels are NOT legal on the federal level.

It is likely that 2019 will see continued and increasing tolerance of medical and recreational marijuana on federal, state, and local levels. Employers should implement the following steps now to protect their businesses.

  • Determine corporate tolerance for marijuana use (at least off-duty), and how that will impact drug testing.  For example, if off-duty use is a non-issue, then consider the type of drug test used for testing marijuana or removing marijuana from the drug panel for certain tests (e.g. applicants) – which can only indicate the presence of the drug in the system and not actual impairment, or how you will treat positive tests for marijuana depending on the type of test and positions. However, be aware that making exceptions for particular candidates or employees could leave the company susceptible to discrimination claims (such as, but not limited to, disability claims).
  • Update policies to comply with the laws (disability, medical leave, registered user protections), company tolerance, and external pressures (e.g., contracts). 
  • Review and update job descriptions – especially for safety sensitive positions. 
  • Implement appropriate management training – including identifying impairment and mandating substance testing, how and when to involve human resources, medical nature of information and company’s policies on marijuana.
  • Understand that disability laws, which never protect at-work impairment, may protect an underlying medical condition, and as such companies should be prepared to engage in the ADA interactive process. 
  • Similarly, understand the implications of and interactions with other laws – like the FMLA, Workers’ Compensation, and equal employment opportunity laws.
  • Enforce policies consistently to avoid discrimination claims.
  • Seek the advice of experienced employment counsel to deal with difficult employees or potentially risky discipline/termination situations.

While these steps are useful for protecting businesses in light of developing marijuana legalization trends, they are also practical audit and compliance reminders under other laws, including but not limited to the Americans with Disabilities Act and mandated leave laws.

Conducting an HR Audit for 2019

Contributed by Jeffrey Risch, December 17, 2018

When was the last time you conducted an HR audit for your organization?

We’re all busy and get distracted easily. Often times HR considers a thorough review of the Employee Handbook is enough to ensure all is well from a legal compliance perspective as to personnel policies and practices. Not quite. A closer examination of an employer’s forms, contracts, procedures, practices and actual day-to-day management is essential. In other words, a deeper dive into an organization’s HR-universe is necessary these days. In a world of increased workplace regulation and litigation risks, a more thorough review and audit is required.

For a sample of a comprehensive checklist of the subjects, topics, and issues that a common HR audit entails, please take a moment and familiarize yourself with our HR Audit Checklist here.

The New Year is Coming…Is Your Office Prepared with the Required Illinois Posters for 2019?

Contributed by Sara Zorich, November 20, 2018

As the holidays are quickly approaching and the hustle and bustle of the end of the year begins, it is important to focus on compliance for 2019. Illinois employers need to ensure that they have the required Illinois postings displayed in their workplaces. The following Illinois posters are required for the designated Illinois employers:

  1. NEW Discrimination and Sexual Harassment Poster (Required to be posted by ALL ILLINOIS EMPLOYERS as of September 2018). In addition, employers should review the notice to employers which outlines information about the poster AND the additional posting requirements necessary in the Company’s handbook.
  2. NEW Illinois Service Member Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (ISERRA) Poster (Required to be posted by ALL ILLINOIS EMPLOYERS by January 1, 2019). This is a new law applicable to public and private employers governing military service leave which aligns Illinois’ military law with the federal law USERRA. For private employers, there are some additional requirements beyond USERRA regarding performance reviews addressed in Section 330 ILCS 61/5-5(3) of the Act. This new law has NO IMPACT on the Illinois Family Military Leave Act which is still applicable law.
  3. Pregnancy Notice (Required to be posted by ALL ILLINOIS EMPLOYERS)
  4. Know Your Rights Poster (Required to be posted by ALL ILLINOIS EMPLOYERS)
  5. Workers Compensation (Required to be posted by ALL ILLINOIS EMPLOYERS)
  6. Unemployment Insurance Benefits Notice (Required to be posted by ALL ILLINOIS EMPLOYERS)
  7. Emergency Choking Notice (Required to be posted by ALL ILLINOIS EMPLOYERS)
  8. Smoke Free Illinois Act Notice (Required to be posted by ALL ILLINOIS EMPLOYERS)
  9. Sexual Harassment in Higher Education Act Poster (Required for those entities who are a public university, a public community college, or an independent, not-for-profit or for-profit higher education institution located in Illinois)
  10. Employee Classification Act of 2008 Poster (Required to be posted by ALL ILLINOIS CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS that have one or more individuals that are not classified as employees)
  11. Illinois Occupational Safety & Health Act Poster (Required to be posted by ALL ILLINOIS PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYERS)
  12. Illinois Day and Temporary Labor Services Act (Required to be posted by ALL ILLINOIS TEMPORARY LABOR AGENCIES)

Dust off Those Handbooks: NLRB Restores Sanity to Employment Policies

Contributed by JT Charron, December 27, 2017

Thirteen years ago the National Labor Relations Board issued its decision in Lutheran Heritage Village-Livonia, 343 NLRB 646, which held that facially neutral work rules violated the National Labor Relations Act if employees would “reasonably construe” the rule to restrict the employees’ rights to engage in protected concerted activity under Section 7 of the Act. Following that decision, the Board used the “reasonably construe” standard to invalidate even the most well intentioned work rules. See e.g., T-Mobile USA Inc., April 29, 2016 (finding that employer’s policy requiring employees to maintain a positive work environment violated the NLRA).

On December 14, in The Boeing Company, 365 NLRB 154, the Board overturned Lutheran Heritage and articulated a new test for evaluating the validity of facially neutral work rules. In place of the unworkable “reasonably construe” standard, the Board introduced a balancing test for analyzing facially neutral work rules. Under the new standard, the Board will “evaluate two things: (i) the nature and extent of the potential impact on NLRA rights, and (ii) legitimate justifications associated with the rule.” (emphasis in original).

Workplace investigation

Examining Documents

Utilizing this standard, the Board reversed the administrative law judge’s decision that Boeing’s no-camera rule violated the NLRA. Instead, it found that the employer’s legitimate business reasons for the policy — protecting proprietary information and national security interests — outweighed any potential Section 7 violation. The Board also articulated three broad categories of work rules that would result from the new balancing test:

  • “Category 1 will include rules that the Board designates as lawful to maintain, either because (i) the rule, when reasonably interpreted, does not prohibit or interfere with the exercise of NLRA rights; or (ii) the potential adverse impact on protected rights is outweighed by justifications associated with the rule.”
  • “Category 2 will include rules that warrant individualized scrutiny in each case as to whether the rule would prohibit or interfere with NLRA rights, and if so, whether any adverse impact on NLRA-protected conduct is outweighed by legitimate justifications.”
  • “Category 3 will include rules that the Board will designate as unlawful to maintain because they would prohibit or limit NLRA-protected conduct, and the adverse impact on NLRA rights is not outweighed by justifications associated with the rule.”

Boeing is a big win for employers and represents a clear change in the Board’s attitude towards work rules. While only time — and additional Board decisions — will tell, the new standard should provide “far greater clarity and certainty” to employers in drafting workplace policies. Additionally, employers may want to consider taking a second look at policies previously removed and/or revised in the wake of Lutheran Heritage and its progeny. Finally, as we head into 2018, employers should evaluate all workplace policies in light of the Board’s new balancing test and be prepared with strong justifications for any policies that have the potential to infringe on an employee’s rights under the Act.

Oh No, Not You (Again): Serious Enforcement of Harassment Policies Is Absolutely Necessary

Contributed by Steven Jados, November 22, 2017

During the past several weeks, it seems that every day has featured new allegations of sexual harassment involving celebrities, politicians, and others in positions of power.

These allegations invite a question to employers: Do you want to be in the news for all the wrong reasons? No? Good, because this moment in time should impress upon all businesses the importance of vigilant enforcement of anti-harassment policies.

HandbookThe first step in enforcement is ensuring that anti-harassment policies are properly communicated to all employees—from entry-level to C-Suite.  All employees should be told, in no uncertain terms, on day one of their employment and regularly thereafter, that they have the right not to be sexually harassed at work. The company’s management—all the way to the top of the organization—must also be put on notice that employees have the right not to be sexually harassed at work, and that credible allegations of harassment will carry real consequences for those who engage in such unacceptable behavior.

Employees must also be trained on how to make internal complaints of harassment within the company.  On that point, employees should know that they can contact human resources, or any appropriate member of management with whom the employee is comfortable with, to disclose improper conduct without fear of retaliation.

Training must also extend to human resources and all members of management, so that they know to recognize harassment complaints for what they are—and so the company’s investigation and enforcement procedures can promptly be put into action. Management must take all complaints or possible situations of harassment seriously, and investigate them to their reasonable conclusion.  There can be no off-the-record complaints; companies cannot look the other way because an accused manager was “just kidding” or, even worse, because an individual “gets to do whatever he or she wants.”  In the end, appropriate disciplinary action and re-training must follow when the company’s investigation determines that harassment occurred.

While proper investigation procedures can shield companies from liability in certain circumstances, failures in implementation, training, investigation, and enforcement of anti-harassment policies are more likely to result in legal liability, negative publicity and adverse financial implications.

Attention employers: Do you have questions on how to implement or communicate anti-harassment policies? Are you uncertain how you should respond to employee complaints? Do you need help in training your employees and management on company anti-harassment policies and procedures? Or, like many employers, are you simply hesitant to investigate harassment allegations against high-level managers?

Ultimately, if you are asking these questions, the best approach is to seek the advice of experienced employment counsel so that potential areas of liability can be contained and minimized, or better yet, eliminated as soon as possible.

House Republicans Try to Remedy Patchwork of Paid Sick Leave

Contributed by Beverly Alfon, November 10, 2017

Eight states, the District of Columbia, and more than 30 municipalities have enacted laws mandating differing paid leave requirements. Localities such as New York and San Francisco, have enacted some of the most aggressive sick leave requirements in the country. Employers doing business within the City of Chicago have also been left to deal with a trifecta of sick leave laws in 2017:  the IL Employee Sick Leave Act, the Cook County Paid Sick Leave ordinance, and the City of Chicago paid sick leave ordinance. All of this has resulted in an administrative nightmare for employers dealing with more than one set of sick leave requirements.

sick leave 2

On November 2, 2017, three Republicans in the U.S. House of Representatives, Reps. Mimi Walters (R-CA), Elise Stefanik (R-NY) and Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), introduced a bill, The Workflex in the 21st Century Act (H.R. 4219). Supporters of the bill tout that the legislation gives employees job flexibility, while also giving employers more certainty and predictability over their leave practices. The bill provides for a voluntary program that is comprised of a combination of guaranteed paid leave and increased workplace flexibility options to employees. The amount of paid leave required (ranging from 12 days up to 20 days) would depend on an employee’s tenure and the employer’s size.  At least one type of workflex option would also be made available to employees, which may include a compressed work schedule, biweekly work program, telecommuting program, job-sharing program, flexible scheduling or a predictable schedule.  The incentive for an employer is that participation in the program would shield it from the mish-mosh of paid leave obligations stemming from state and local laws currently in effect.

The bill would not require employees to use the workflex option in order to take advantage of the paid days off. Also, to be eligible for a workflex arrangement, an employee would have to be employed for at least 12 months by the employer and would have to have worked at least 1,000 hours during the previous 12 months. More details regarding the bill can be found here.

Bottom line: Where this bill will end up obviously remains to be seen, but it has strong support from the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, National Association of Manufacturers, National Association of Women Business Owners and other employer groups. Until there is a solution to the administrative hopscotch required of employers whose employees work in different cities, counties and states, employers must do their best to stay on top of the applicable paid sick leave requirements and related rules and regulations, and adjust their policies and procedures accordingly.

Opioids in the Workplace

Contributed by Michael Wong, November 3, 2017

One of the first questions I ask when providing drug and alcohol training to managers, supervisors and employees is “What is the most commonly used illegal drug?” Typically, the response that I get will be alcohol (albeit not illegal) or marijuana. What most do not realize until the training is that prescription drugs, in particular opioids, are the most commonly abused illegal drug. Prescription opioids include hydrocodone, oxycodone, morphine, codeine and fentanyl, while illegal opioids include heroin.

J0337282Opioid use in the United States has started to take on a whole new form and is now commonly referred to as the opioid epidemic. Illinois has not escaped the opioid epidemic; in 2016 there were 2,278 drug overdose deaths of which over 80% (1,826) were opioid related. The number of opioid related deaths in 2016 was an increase of over 30% of the opioid related deaths in 2015 and an increase of over 70% of the number of opioid related deaths in 2013.

In looking at these numbers, it is important to understand that these are only the deaths – not the actual number of individuals using or abusing opioids. In a recent study by the National Safety Counsel, over one in three Illinois residents (35%) reported being impacted by opioid/heroin use by knowing someone (self, family/friend, co-worker/co-workers’ family, or neighbor/neighbor’s family) that started using opioids/heroin, became addicted to opioid/heroin, survived an opioid/heroin overdose or had died from an opioid/heroin overdose. Indeed, one issue with the opioid epidemic is that the gateway to opioid use does not always come from illegal activities, but can start out with a legitimate legal prescription. When there is a valid use for a prescription drug, an individual can feel like they are not doing anything wrong and their use can quickly turn into a slippery slope of addiction, activities that negatively impacts their work performance and potentially illegal activities. As a result of this, the opioid epidemic does not discriminate and can be found across all demographics, industries and positions.

One of the concerns with opioids for employers is that it is more difficult to tell if someone is under the influence or using opioids or heroin than other more traditional drugs. For instance, opioids and heroin do not come with symptoms or indicators that are easy to perceive like with alcohol – a smell, shaking hands and movements, and behavior changes; or with marijuana – a smell, red eyes, delayed reaction time, anxiety, and lack of coordination. With opioids, it is often difficult for employers to make the connection between an employee appearing groggy, sleepy or forgetful in the workplace to being linked to drug use. Indeed, what employers will typically see, if anything at all, is a gradual decline in an employee’s attendance and performance, until the employee loses their job or stops coming to work altogether.

The traditional tool of employers to identify and prevent drug and alcohol use within the workplace is drug testing. Pre-hire drug testing can be effective in preventing illegal opioid users from joining the workforce. However, drug testing is not always effective where the opioid user has a legal prescription or where the individual is not yet an opioid user. Reasonable suspicion drug testing can also be effective, but first requires reasonable suspicion of opioid use which can be difficult to identify.

So what does this leave? First and foremost, employers should re-evaluate their drug policies and testing procedures and understand the potential legal implications. For example, drug testing can be modified to test for legal prescription medications, but in order to avoid a violation of the ADA the applicant or employee must be able to provide an explanation for the positive drug test, such as a prescribed medication. Additionally, employers must realize that even if the employee is using prescription medication, there may be an underlying medical condition that they need to be aware of to avoid any kind of disability discrimination claim.

Next, employers should consider questioning its health care benefit carrier and workers’ compensation carrier on what actions they are taking to address the opioid epidemic and collaborating with them on any specialized programs or options for addressing. This can include learning about whether the carrier has programs for the conservative use and risk of prescription opioids, an opioid management program and/or a prescription benefit management program, which can help in preventing prescription medication abuse and identify the abuse of prescription medications. In doing so, employers should also consider investing in an employee assistance program (EAP), which can help employees avoid or address addiction.

Another investment that can pay dividends is management and employee education. Better training and education for not only management, but also employees regarding the impacts of opioids, how to identify opioid use and how to address opioid abuse. Management training can help make management more aware of how to identify potential issues before they occur and get employees help before it escalates to more serious problems. This includes not only taking into consideration the symptoms of opioid and other drug use, but also recognizing changes in how employees are acting, their performance, their attendance, any recent injuries they have had and any other issues that could indicate drug abuse. Employee training can help employees understand the danger of opioids, how the use of legal use of prescription opioids can lead to addiction, and what steps can be taken to seek assistance. Of course, any training should be tailored to include information regarding the Company’s policies, drug testing, benefit programs and reassurances regarding the Company’s commitment to providing confidential and accessible help and treatment.

Finally, one thing to remember is that despite the high numbers of deaths in 2016 in Illinois, Illinois is still behind many states in its exposure to the opioid epidemic. Indeed, in some places manufacturing employers have found using pre-hiring drug testing was not effective. The reason for this is it significantly increased the number of applicants they have had to go through in order to hire for a position or was making it near impossible to fill their staffing needs due to applicants not returning after learning there was drug testing or applicants consistently failing the drug test.

 

Save the Date! SmithAmundsen Complimentary Webinar – November 9 – Employee Handbook Essentials for HR Pros and Business Owners

Join Amanda Biondolino on Thursday, November 9 at 8:30AM CT as she guides employers of all shapes and sizes through effectively using an employee handbook and identifies top employee handbook mistakes that could cost you. This complimentary webinar includes insight on specific topics such as:

  • Purpose of employee handbooks
  • Safety standards
  • Drug test policies
  • Privacy issues
  • And more!

Register for the webinar here!