Tag Archives: employment law

Post-Election Employment Implications in Illinois, Indiana, Missouri and Wisconsin

Contributed by Steven Jados, Rebecca Dobbs Bush, Suzanne Newcomb, and Brian Wacker November 7, 2018

47062864 - man putting a ballot into a voting box - usaWith the dust mostly settled after election night, we can now look at the impact the election will have on employment laws in Illinois, Indiana, Missouri and Wisconsin, and at the federal level.

Illinois: The major story in Illinois is the election of J.B. Pritzker as governor.  In short, his election is likely to usher in greater infrastructure spending—including an increase in prevailing wage jobs—and more aggressive enforcement efforts by state agencies charged with regulating employers and protecting employees. Beyond that, minimum wage increases, expansions to employee protections under the Illinois Human Rights Act, and more legislation favorable to employees are likely to receive strong consideration in the General Assembly in the near future.

Indiana: We do not expect to see any significant state-level changes in Indiana. Republicans maintained their supermajority in both chambers of the Indiana Statehouse and swept every statewide race on the ballot. Republican Eric Holcomb (elected to his first four year term in 2016) will continue as Indiana’s Governor.

Missouri: In Missouri, the elected status quo kept. Governor Mike Parsons, serving out former Governor Eric Greitens’ term, was not on the ballot. In the Legislature, Republicans maintained their supermajority status in both the Missouri State Senate and House of Representatives. In the Senate, the Republicans maintained their 24 to 10 seat lead over Democrats with no seats changing hands. In the House, preliminary results show that each party flipped three seats from the other, maintaining the Republicans’ dominant 116 to 47 seat advantage.

Missouri voters did, however, approve Proposition B, a minimum wage increase measure by a 62% to 38% margin. The measure increases the state’s current $7.85 minimum wage incrementally over the next five years to: $8.60 in 2019, $9.45 in 2020, $10.30 in 2021, $11.15 in 2022 and $12.00 in 2023. After 2023, the minimum wage will automatically increase or decrease based on Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers. The measure also increases the penalty for employers paying employees less than minimum wages. Affected workers can now recover the full amount of the wage rate and an additional amount equal to twice the unpaid wages as liquidated damages.

Wisconsin: In 2011, Governor Walker drew national attention to Wisconsin when he revealed his plan to eradicate collective bargaining for most public workers. Since 2013, the governor and the legislature in Wisconsin have been dominated by Republicans. Scott Walker’s loss to Tony Evers, marks the end of that complete control. And based upon a law signed last year by Governor Walker, the margin of loss, while extremely narrow, is not narrow enough to demand a recount.

Evers campaigned on promises to cut income taxes by 10 percent for people making less than $100,000 and for families making less than $150,000. Evers has also stated that it is his goal to eliminate the limitations on unions (known as Act 10). However, with the legislature remaining primarily Republican, such a goal will likely remain out of reach.

Change does not happen overnight and a Republican legislature will slow any initiatives of Democrat, Tony Evers. However, the loss of a 5 year complete Republican majority of government will certainly have an effect on Wisconsin businesses.

Federal: At the federal level, little is likely to change over the next two years with respect to the Executive and Legislative branches of government. As long as Republicans remain in the White House, the composition and direction of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is unlikely to shift dramatically from its current course. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), Department of Labor (DOL), and other agencies charged with regulation and enforcement of employment-related laws are also likely to continue to operate much as they have for the last two years—albeit with less-aggressive enforcement initiatives directed at businesses and, perhaps, smaller budgets. The prospect of significant employment-related legislation—whether protective of employees or businesses—seems quite unlikely for the foreseeable future given that Democrats control the U.S. House of Representatives, and Republicans control the Senate. However, there is some talk that family paid medical leave and an infrastructure bill may receive bipartisan support. We shall see. Of course, Republicans are likely to continue to use their Senate majority to fill judicial vacancies with conservative judges.

Although gridlock is likely in the federal government, we expect plenty of employment-law related activity at the state level, particularly in Illinois, and we will continue to apprise you of new developments as they arise.

 

Employer May Be Held Liable For Employing Murderer!

Contributed by Noah A. Frank, July 27, 2017

Claims of negligent hiring, training, and retention is alive and well. Employers must be prepared to investigate, and fully remediate supervisors’ misconduct.

code of conduct

Recently, the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals (Illinois, Wisconsin, Indiana) held that an employer may be liable for intentional acts committed by supervisory employees against other employees outside of work if the employer has been negligent. The tragic case, Anicich v. Home Depot USA, Inc., 852 F. 3d 643 (7th Cir. 2017), arose from the death and rape of a pregnant employee at the hands of her supervisor.

Background

Home Depot and its garden centers subcontractors (together, the “Employer”) jointly employed Brian Cooper as a regional manager. The victim’s estate alleged the employer knew Cooper had a history of sexually harassing, verbally abusing, and physically intimidating female subordinates, which included making crude and lewd comments, yelling and swearing at them, rubbing against them, controlling their conduct by pressuring them into spending time with him alone, and even throwing things.

The supervisor’s mistreatment of one subordinate, Alisha Bromfield, began in 2006 when she started working for the employer seasonally as a teenager. Cooper fixated his attention on her, calling her his “girlfriend” at work and repeating the above misconduct with her. Senior management, aware of Bromfield’s repeated complaints, failed to take reasonable steps to protect Bromfield, ensure that Cooper completed mandated anger management training or remove his supervisory duties. This ended in tragedy.

In 2012, when Bromfield was 7 months pregnant, Cooper threatened her. Using his supervisory authority, he demanded that she attend an out-of-town wedding with him, telling her he would fire her or reduce her hours if she refused. Bromfield acquiesced, but denied Cooper’s recurring demand to “be in a relationship.” After the wedding, Cooper murdered Bromfield, and then raped her corpse.

The Court held that employers have a duty to act reasonably in hiring, supervising, and retaining their employees, and that this was part of a broader trend toward recognizing employer liability for supervisors’ intentional torts committed outside the scope of employment – even where the harm caused was wholly disproportionate to more predictable harms (e.g., murder/rape versus continued sexual harassment, emotional/mental trauma). Because Cooper was alleged to have abused the employer’s grant of supervisory authority over Bromfield, the employer could be vicariously liable for Cooper’s torts committed against Bromfield.

Employers’ Duty in Light of the Seventh Circuit Court Ruling

Anicich is instructive. Employers that fail to act to stop an employee’s abuse of supervisory authority could be held liable for even the most extreme and gruesome intentional tortious and criminal conduct.

As such, employers must protect their businesses, including the following minimum steps:

  • Understand the risks associated with subcontracting and joint employer relationships, including supervision and control;
  • Implement and train employees on anti-discrimination, harassment, and sexual harassment policies, including a published complaint/reporting procedure, and prohibiting retaliation;
  • Take seriously and investigate all reports and complaints – no matter how minor, and even for repeat complainants;
  • Remediate any issues – including stripping supervisory authority, mandating training, and transferring/terminating employees;
  • Prohibit and protect those involved from, retaliation;
  • Respect and comply with collective bargaining rights – and get the union’s buy-in when necessary; and
  • Seek the advice of and guidance from experienced employment counsel when issues arise to ensure legal compliance and implementation of best practices to mitigate exposure.

OVERTIME RULE UPDATE – DOL APPEALS PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION

Contributed by Noah A. Frank

As we previously reported, on 11/22/2016, Judge Amos Mazzant (E.D. Texas) granted a preliminary injunction that halted the 12/1/2016 implementation of the DOL’s Final Overtime Rule, which would have more-than-doubled the minimum salary level for executive/administrative/professional exempt employees.Wage-Hour2

On 12/1/2016, the U.S. DOL filed a notice of appeal to the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, indicating that it strongly believes that the DOL followed all required administrative processes, and there is no reason to delay implementation of the Final Rule.

This fight is not over. Employers that have not yet undertaken serious analysis of the duties of claimed exempt positions should do so promptly and determine the strategies they will implement should the injunction be vacated. Stay tuned for further news and analysis of this hotly evolving issue.

Is Your Contractor Really Independent?

Contributed by Noah A. Frank

Recently, a California labor commissioner found that an Uber driver was an employee and not an independent contractor (“IC”), awarding the driver over $4,000 in expenses (Uber Techs., Inc. v. Berwick, CGC-15-546378 (Cal. Sup. Ct. June 16, 2015)). Similar lawsuits, including class action matters, are being filed around the country.  The implications for Uber are huge: unemployment taxes, workers’ compensation insurance, minimum wage, overtime, and third-party tort liability to start.

What is so surprising about this ruling is that Uber drivers seem to epitomize the IC relationship. They enter into explicit IC agreements, work when and where they want, accept the fares they want, supply their own vehicle, pay their own gas and maintenance costs, and work for competitors (i.e., Lyft and traditional taxi services). Uber generally requires drivers to complete an application, be safe drivers, and be knowledgeable about the city’s geography. Uber processes the fare, deducts its fee, and pays the remainder to the driver.

How did the IC relationship become so complex?  Well, the law favors the employer-employee relationship as the default.  It ensures workers receive minimum and overtime wages, are covered by workers’ compensation and unemployment benefits when the relationship ends. Of course, this also means that the government receives taxes (rather than hope an IC actually pays taxes), and will not become the guarantor of an unemployed or uninsured individual through social welfare programs like Medicaid.

ContractIt’s not so simple after all.  Here are five tips for engaging an Independent Contractor:

  • First, consider whether the IC arrangement is really best for your business. For example, if you want a lot of control versus an end product, it may be better to hire employees.
  • Second, will you be engaging individuals or companies?  Most employment law tests favor the IC arrangement when the two parties are independently established businesses.
  •  Third, have a good, tailored contract.  While not conclusive, contracts are meant to provide black-and-white evidence of the parties’ intent (which, by its nature, is drafted when things are going well to protect them for when things go south).
  • Fourth, perform an audit of the relationship under the various substantive laws governing your industry (e.g., special rules for construction, trucking, and temporary labor to name a few) before entering into the IC relationship.  The key is: would the relationship satisfy an administrative agency’s test if an IC complained?
  • Finally, seek the advice of counsel to ensure that the four steps above are conducted with an objective eye towards protecting your business now and going forward.  While most business deals can be made, upfront review may save costly legal fees in litigation and otherwise.